《满月儿》:“鬼才”作家贾平凹的文坛敲门砖之作

2019-08-09 消息来源:中国文化译研网     原作者:中国文化译研网

编者按:为了更好地进行中国文学海外传播工作,让中国作品在海外被发现(Discover)、被理解(Understand)、被传播(Express),中国文化译研网(CCTSS)邀请国内资深文学主编及文学评论家,精选出近两百部短中长篇小说,形成第一期《中国当代文学作品指南》(简称“指南”),从更具权威性、价值性的角度出发,更好地向世界展示中国当代文学精品,传播中国书香。


夏读书,日正长,打开书,喜洋洋。现将“指南”中的精品文学作品以一日一推的方式向读者呈现,让我们不负一夏好时光。


满月儿.jpg

贾平凹丨《满月儿》



推荐理由


《满月儿》是贾平凹第一部有代表意义的作品,发表于1978年,并获得第一届全国优秀短篇小说奖。贾平凹以一种诗意化或现代化的眼光在中国的乡土大地上寻找到些许暖意和几分亮色,也表现了别样的爱与美。小说写的是“我”在乡下老家养病认识的姨家的两姐妹:姐姐小满和妹妹小月。她们性格相反,小月爱笑爱闹,而小满却温柔、内敛得多。无论如何,她们都拥有着美好而健康的人性,质朴而纯真,深深地感染着“我”。同时,小说也通过姐姐小满学英语、做麦种的科研实验表现出当时的人们对于知识、科学的尊重与向往,对“现代化”的体认,也赞美了崇高的理想信念与努力奋斗。整体上说,小说用笔细腻,风格清新,好似一首乡村牧歌。这样的声音,在七八十年代里显得特别与珍贵。

自《满月儿》起,贾平凹的小说创作大抵上都围绕着乡土大地而写,又紧紧关心着时代的变革与演进。从《满月儿》到《浮躁》,再到《秦腔》,贾平凹三十余年的叙事线索的流变,无可奈何地从乡村牧歌走向了乡村挽歌。


Reviews


Full Moon is the first prominent work by Jia Pingwa. It was published in 1978 and was awarded the First National Outstanding Short Story Award. Jia Pingwa utilizes a kind of poetic and modern vision to seek out warmth and brightness among China’s native soil and to reveal a unique kind of love and beauty.

The narrator of the story meets two sisters from her Aunt’s home while recovering from an illness at her hometown. The elder sister is called Man’er and the younger sister Yue’er. The two have opposite personalities: Yue’er likes to laugh and tease while Man’er is gentle and very introverted. Regardless, both girls possess a fine and healthy sense of humanity. They are unadulterated and sincere. The two girls have a strong effect on the narrator. The story simultaneously follows Man’er’s study of English and her research of wheat seeds. These pursuits demonstrate the respect and yearning for knowledge. It is a realization of “modernization” and praises conviction of ideals and hard work. As a whole, the story is written meticulously with a crisp style. It is similar to a countryside folk song. Coming out of the 1970s, such a voice is distinctive and precious.


Starting with Full Moon, the novels created by Jia Pingwa are more or less centered on the theme of native soil. The works also pay close attention to the transformation and progress of the times. From Full Moon, to Turbulence, and eventually to Qin Opera, the stream of Jia’s narratives develops and changes, inevitably shifting from a countryside folk song to a countryside elegy.


作家简介

Author Profile


贾平凹.jpg

贾平凹,男,原名贾平娃,1952年出生于陕西省商洛市丹凤县。1975年毕业于西北大学中文系,从事文学编辑工作,1982年进入西安市文联,进行专业创作。三十余年,笔耕不辍,创作颇丰。陕西省作家协会主席、《美文》杂志主编,是中国当代著名作家,也是当代文坛的文学奇才与鬼才。


自《满月儿》起,贾平凹已发表诸多文学作品。中短篇小说有《小月前本》《鸡窝洼的人家》《腊月·正月》等,长篇小说有《商州》《浮躁》《废都》《白夜》《高老庄》《秦腔》《高兴》《古炉》《老生》《带灯》等,散文集有《爱的踪迹》《心迹》《我是农民》等。


与此同时,贾平凹的创作引起了巨大反响,也先后获得国内外诸多奖项:全国第一届优秀短篇小说奖,全国第三届优秀中篇小说奖,第三届鲁迅文学奖,第七届茅盾文学奖,第二届朱自清散文奖,第一届施耐庵文学奖;并在国际上获得美国美孚飞马文学奖、法国费米娜文学奖、法兰西共和国文学艺术荣誉奖等。


Jia Pingwa,born in 1952, is a native of Danfeng County, Shangluo City in Shaanxi Province.


Having graduated from the Chinese Language Department of Northwest University in 1975, Jia Pingwa founded the literary journal Essay in 1992, and assumed the position of Dean of School of Humanities at Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology in 2003. He is, now, a member of the Presidium of the Chinese Writers’ Association, Chairman of Shaanxi branch of the organization, and Chairman of Xi’an Literary Federation of Literary and Art Circles. Jia Pingwa started publishing literary works in 1974, First Records of Shangzhou, Turbulence, Ruined City, White Nights, Earth Gate, Old Gao Village, Heavenly Dog, Black Clan, The Good Fortune Grave, The Regrets of a Bride Carrier, Pregnancy, Wolves of Yesterday, Health Report, and Qin Opera are but some of his major pieces.


In 1979, Jia Pingwa won the 1st National Best Short Story of the Year for his short story Full Moon. His works have been translated into over 20 languages including English, French, German, Russian, Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese.


中文概要

Synopsis

去年夏天,我在乡下老家养病,末了的日子里到姨家去,正好是农历六月六。这一天,农民都讲究把皮毛丝绸拿出来晒日头,据说这样虫就不蛀。姨家的大杂院前,杨树上拴了一道一道铁丝,晒着皮袄、毛袜、柞绸被子、狗毛毡子,使人眼花缭乱。正欣赏着,就听见有“咯咯咯”的笑声,绕过杨树一看,原来是一个十七八的姑娘和一个老婆婆在拽被面。两人一松一拉,那洗后未干的被面就平展开来。姑娘很调皮,用力太大,把老婆婆一个劲儿拽着往前走,那老婆婆就骂道:

“这死女子!让娘夸你力大哩?轻点,轻一点!”

那姑娘只是笑,并不让步,把娘一直拽过来。

“没正经!”娘生气了,使劲一拽,那姑娘只管笑,没留神让被面脱手了,娘一个后趔趄,快要倒下去,姑娘箭步上前拉住,娘儿俩就势儿坐在地上。姑娘又“咯咯”笑起来,娘狠狠地在她眉心一点,自己也逗笑了。突然,娘捂了女儿嘴,拿手指指东边窗子,姑娘便轻手轻脚走到窗前,不小心,撞翻跌烂了窗台一页瓦;她一跳跳出二尺地来,叫道:“出来晒晒日头吧,别尽坐着发了霉了!”

这时候,姨发现了我,喜欢得汲了茶出来,让我在门前阴凉地坐了。我瞧见那姑娘还在那儿笑,就招呼她来喝喝茶,她立即过来了。她娘笑着用手戳脸羞她,她说:

“不该喝吗?我还要叫她大姐哩!”

“这好派风,见人熟!”姨说,“我这外甥女是农学院的‘秀才’,你要叫老师哩!”

我便笑着问她刚才在窗口看什么,她说:“那里边住着一个宝贝蛋儿!”

姨告诉我:这是月儿,屋里住的那是她姐姐,叫满儿,是大队科研站的,正在屋里搞试验哩;搞试验的时候,全家人连她娘也不许惊动的。

“人家嘛,是全家的重点,要保证重点呢!”月儿说。

“那你呢?”我问。

“咱是万人嫌!哼,我真怀疑我是不是娘从哪儿要来的?”

大家都笑了,月儿她笑得最响。

月儿开始翻我带的网兜了,她拿出了两本书来,看看里边尽是外国字,就问:

“这是哪国字呢?”

“英文。”

“你看得懂吗?”

姨说,人家一看一上午,坐在那儿纹丝不动,头晕都不晕。月儿高兴了,说她姐姐也有这样的书,只是没有这么厚;她顶爱听姐姐念那书了,但姐姐偏不让她听。

可是,我刚给她念了半页,她却跑走了:大场上,一个小伙踩着碌碡碾芦苇眉,她跳上去,一边踩得碌碡“咕噜噜”滚,一边“咯咯咯”地笑。

晚上,我正在灯下一边熬着中药儿,一边看外文书,突然听见门轻轻敲了一下,就没动静了,我以为是风吹的,但是,又是轻轻两下,接着就有人问:

“陆老师,你睡了吗?”

“谁呀?”我拉开了门,是一个二十四、五的姑娘倚在门框上,当我看她的时候,她脸微微一红,就低下头摩挲起那长辫子,说:“我叫满儿,住在斜对门的。这么晚了,打搅你了? ”

我高兴了,赶忙让她进来坐。一挑门帘,她轻轻闪进来,连个声儿也没有,就稳稳地坐在炕沿上不动了。

“真不像是姊妹俩儿!”我想起了月儿,说。

“一个人一个脾性嘛。”她轻轻一笑。“下午我听她说你来了,还带了外文书,我喜得……陆老师,你住多长时间呢?”

“十天左右吧。”

“其实还可以长些。”她说,突然看见了药罐,“你有病吗?”

我告诉她:我患有慢性胃溃疡,这次主要是来疗养的。她眉心就一直打个疙瘩,末了说:“明天我给胜文写个信吧,他是我同学,现在是赤脚医生,他治这病有个偏方,灵验得很。本来我要求你一件事,但是你却病了……”

她说着,就坐在药罐前,拿筷子搅药。

“是学外语吗?”

筷子不动了,她抬起头间:

“你怎么知道了?”

“月儿说的。”

她噗嗤笑了:“陆老师,原来只说咱农民嘛,学那些个外文干啥用呀?可搞起科研后,才知道多重要哩!自己就开始自学,可惜没个老师,费好大的劲,才认得几个单词。”

“那我教你吧。”

她高兴得笑出声来。原来她笑得也是这么动人呀!她靠近灯前,用发夹挑了一下灯芯,我们便立即开始教学了。她从口袋里掏出一个单儿来,上边是“小麦,燕麦,分蘖,开花,授粉”,说她正搞小麦、燕麦远缘杂交,就先学会这几个单词吧。我教过三遍,她就开始默写,刚写好“授粉”单词,药罐就咕嘟嘟滚开了,她“呀”的一声就去取罐子,却“啊啊”地惊叫着,刚把罐子放到桌上,就把手搁嘴上直吹气。我忙看时,中指已烧起一个水疱来。我慌了,她却从头上拔下一根长发来,用针引过,挑破水泡,说:“不要紧,让它慢慢往外流水。你看我‘授粉’写得对吗?”

她写得完全正确,而且那字母清晰、流利,就像她人一样苗条、温柔、漂亮。


Last summer, I was in the countryside getting over an illness. As the summer was nearing its end, I went to my aunt’s house. It happened to be the sixth day of the sixth month of the lunar calendar. On that day, the peasants all paid careful attention to set out their furs and silks to dry in the sunshine. As it’s said, this keeps the insects away. 

In front of Auntie’s multi-household compound, there were rows of iron wire tied between the poplar trees. Hung upon the wire were fur-lined jackets, down coats, tussah silk fabric quilts, and dog felt carpets all drying under the sun. It was a sight to behold. Just as I was admiring them, I heard the sound of chuckling. I walked around a poplar tree and saw a 17- or 18-year-old girl and an elderly lady shaking bed sheets together. One of them pulled while the other slackened the tension to and fro. In this way, the recently washed, not-yet-dry quilt cover opened up unwrinkled. The girl was mischievous. Each time she pulled, she used too much force and yanked the old lady forward a step. The old lady scolded her in return. 

“You damned girl! Are you looking for me to praise your strength? Be gentler with it! Gentle!”

The girl just laughed but didn’t let up at all and kept carrying the lady along with her.

The lady grew angry, saying “Be serious!” She pulled with all her might. The girl, all her attention now on laughing, carelessly let the quilt slip out of her hands. The lady stumbled and nearly toppled down backwards, but the girl shot forward a few steps to catch her. Both ended up landing with a thud, sitting down on the ground. The girl let out another gurgling laugh. The lady gave her a fierce poke on her forehead between her eyebrows, and then let out a laugh herself. Suddenly, the lady covered the girl’s mouth and pointed to the window to the east. The girl snuck over to the window. She was a little careless and knocked over a tile on the windowsill, breaking it. Frightened, she hopped forward two feet and yelled out, “Rise and shine sun! Don’t grow mold sitting on your butt!”

At this moment, my aunt noticed me. Happily, she brought out some tea and made me sit under the shade in front of the door. I could see the girl was still laughing over there and called her over to drink some tea. She came over immediately. The old lady laughed and used her hand to poke the girl’s face, teasing her and asking if she felt ashamed of herself.

“What? Shouldn’t I be able to drink with her too?” my cousin asked. “She’s my elder sister!”

“You really are something,” my aunt said. “It’s your first meeting, and you want to get familiar! My niece is the ‘fine scholar’ of the agricultural college. You should call her teacher!”

I laughed and asked her why she was looking into the window.

“The jewel of our family lives over there” she said. 

“This is Yue’er,” my aunt told me. “The girl inside is her older sister, Man’er. Their names put together mean ‘the full moon’. Man’er works in a research station and she’s currently conducting an experiment inside. When she’s working, nobody in the family is allowed to disturb her – her mother included." 

“Man’er is the important one of the family,” Yue’er said. “You need to protect what’s important!”

“And you?” I asked.

“We’re plebeians! Ha – I really doubt whether or not I came from my mom.” 

Everyone laughed. Yue’er herself laughed the hardest. 

Yue’er started to sift through the netted bag I had brought along and took out two books. She noticed that they were filled with characters from a foreign country and asked what country’s letters the books contained.

“English,” I said.

“Can you understand it?” 

“She can sit there reading all morning without moving an inch and never get the slightest bit dizzy,” Aunt said. Yue’er was happy. She said her older sister had that kind of book too, except not so thick. She absolutely loved to hear her older sister read aloud from that book, but her sister simply wouldn’t let her listen.

But before I finished reading half a page to her, she ran off. She ran across the field to a young man stomping and playing atop the stoneroller used for grinding the husks of reeds. She jumped up to join him, making the stones roll and grate against each other. She let out a gurgling laugh.

That night, as I stewed the medical herbs, I read one of the foreign language books under a lamp’s light. Then I unexpectedly heard a gentle knocking. It subsided, and I figured it was the blowing of the wind; but then two more gentle knocks followed along with a voice. “Teacher Lu, are you asleep?”

“Who is it?” I opened the door to reveal a girl of 24 or 25 leaning on the doorframe. When I looked at her, she blushed a little, then lowered her head and played with her long braid. 

“I’m Man’er,” she said. “I live in the room diagonal from here. It’s really late – am I disturbing you?”

I was happy and told her to come in. When I raised the curtains, she lightly flashed inside. Noiselessly, she went over to the kang and sat stably down on its edge, not moving in the least.

“You and your sister look so different!” I said with Yue’er in mind.

“Everyone has their own character,” she said with a gentle smile. “This afternoon, I heard her say you came over and brought some foreign language books with you. I’m really happy about it. Teacher Lu, how long will you stay?”

“About ten days.”

“Actually, you can stay a little longer,” she said, then suddenly noticed the medicine pot. “Are you sick?”

I told her that I’d contracted a chronic stomach ulcer and that my current visit was chiefly making time for me to recuperate.

She furrowed her brow for a while, then finally spoke. “Tomorrow I’m going to write a letter to Shengwen. He’s my classmate. Right now, he’s a village doctor. He has special traditional, home remedies for this disease – they’re extremely effective. At first I wanted to ask you for something, but it looks like you’re sick..."

She sat in front of the medicine pot as she spoke and used the chopsticks to stir it.

“You want to study English?” I asked.

The chopsticks stopped and she raised her head. “How did you know?”

“Yue’er said so.”

“Teacher Lu,” she gave out a quick laugh. “Before, when we were just ‘those peasants’, what was the use in us studying a foreign language? But now that I’ve started doing research, I realize how important it is! I’ve started teaching myself, but without a teacher I’ve given it all my effort just to memorize a few words.”

“Then how about I teaching you.”

She let out a cheerful noise of laughter. Her laugh had its own touch of magic as well! She got near the lamp and used her hairpin to pull the wick up a little. We started studying right away. She took a list out of her pocket with the Chinese words “wheat”, “oats”, “tiller”, “bloom” and “pollination” written on it. She said she was researching the distant hybridization of wheat and oats right then and subsequently wanted to master these few words first. I taught her the spelling three times, and then she started to write them from her memory. When she was writing out “pollination”, the medicine pot began to bulge and screech from its boiling. She let out a squirm of surprise and took the pot off the flame. She yelped all of a sudden and quickly set the pot down on the table. She held her hand up to her mouth to blow at it and cool it down. I worriedly took a glance at her finger and saw that the middle already had a blister bulging up. I panicked, but she just plucked a long hair from atop her head and got it through a needle. She used this to pop the blister. “It looks OK, just let it slowly drain. Have a look, did I write ‘pollination’ correctly?”

She had written it perfectly. The letters were clear and fluent, just like her – graceful, warm, and beautiful.

责任编辑:罗雨静

最新要闻

  • “外国人写作中国计划”海外传播交流会在京举办

    中国文化译研网(CCTSS)于8月23日上午邀请“外国人写作中国计划”(以下简称“外写中”)项目的部分入选机构和作家以及相关专家参加“外国人写作中国计划”海外传播交流会,旨在从选题策划、海外图书影响和图书在海外的传播方式等角度探讨如何提升该项目在海外的影响力。

  • “外国人写作中国计划”第四期征集指引发布

    丝路书香“外国人写作中国计划”秘书处现面向全球发布第四期项目征集指引,旨在全球范围内寻找优秀的中国主题图书,推动国际出版业的发展,促进国家间的文化交流。欢迎海外汉学家、作家、媒体人、学者等各界人士踊跃申报!

  • 2019中华图书特殊贡献奖获奖者座谈会暨“外国人写作中国计划”图书版权与选题策划国际研讨会在京举行

    本次座谈会通过第十三届特贡奖获奖者与国内学者、出版商代表的讨论交流,分享具体实践经验,共同探讨国际版权合作与国际创意写作资源合作平台模式,增进了海外翻译家、汉学家对国际写作与版权的更深层次了解,为进一步讲好中国故事,推动中国优秀作品“走出去”提供了借鉴意义。

  • 第十三届特贡奖名单揭晓,CCTSS会员再度榜上有名

    中国文化译研网(CCTSS)会员罗阳,“外国人写作中国计划”拟资助作品作家贝淡宁荣获中华图书特殊贡献奖。

  • 蒙古国读者想读这本书!

    因高品质的内容和读者的强烈呼吁,蒙古光明出版社期待与中国出版社合作,翻译出版《习近平的七年知青岁月》蒙语版。时值中蒙建交70周年,一起为推动中蒙文化互译事业添砖加瓦!