《东藏记》:我们决不投降!

2019-03-14 消息来源:中国文化译研网     原作者:

编者按:为了更好地进行中国文学海外传播工作,让中国作品在海外被发现(Discover)、被理解(Understand)、被传播(Express),中国文化译研网(CCTSS)邀请国内资深文学主编及文学评论家,精选出近两百部短中长篇小说,形成第一期《中国当代文学作品指南》(简称“指南”),从更具权威性、价值性的角度出发,更好地向世界展示中国当代文学精品,传播中国书香。

春读书,兴味长,磨其砚,笔花香。现将“指南”中的精品文学作品以一日一推的方式向读者呈现,让我们不负春日好时光。


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宗璞原名冯宗璞,1928 年出生,河南唐河人。其父为著名哲学家冯友兰。抗战爆发后,随父亲到昆明,就读西南联大附属中学。1946 年入南开大学外文系,1948 年转入清华大学外文系。毕业后做过《世界文学》编辑,后来长期在中国社会科学院外国文学研究所工作。


主要有短篇小说《红豆》《不沉的湖》《弦上的梦》《三生石》等,还有系列长篇小说《野葫芦引》,包括《南渡记》《东藏记》《西征记记》。曾获得全国优秀中篇小说奖,茅盾文学奖。


Zong Pu is the pen name of Feng Zhongpu ( 冯 钟 璞 ). She was born in 1928 in Beijing. With her hometown located in Tanghe county, Henan province. Her father is Mr. Feng Youlan, a famous Chinese philosopher. Upon the outbreak of the War of Resistance Against Japan in 1937, she moved with her father to Kunming, where she attended a High School affiliated to National Southwestern Associated University. In 1946, she began her college study in the Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures at Nankai University. In 1948, she transferred to the Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures at Tsinghua University. Upon graduation in 1951, she initially worked as an editor for World Literature. Later she was transferred to work at the Institute of Foreign Literature, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, until her retirement. 


Her main works include short stories such as Red Beans, The Unsinkable Lake, Dream on the Strings, and The Everlasting Rockand etc., as well as a series of novels under the title of The Wild Gourd Suite, including Note of Heading South, Note of Hiding in the East and Note of Marching West. She is the recipient of the 1977-1980 National Award for Best Novella and the Mao Dun Literature Prize in 2005. 


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《东藏记》


《东藏记》以昆明抗战期间明仑大学教授孟樾的一家人的生活为中心,波及到他们的同事、亲戚和朋友,写了历史特殊阶段个人的创痛,以及由此生发出的对生命的理解。


小说结构安排并不复杂,就是以时间为序,叙述学校南迁后师生的故事。作品并没有写大事件,而是写大学、家庭中的普通人事,侧重抗战南迁带来的影响。在对抗战期间知识分子的描写中,《东藏记》的视角是独特的,带有自叙传的意味,因此,真实素朴、具有震撼人心的力量。战争中,物质条件很恶劣,反而激发了民族感情,作品中洋溢着誓死战胜日本侵略者的决心。


在对人物心理的描摹中,作者展现出女性的细腻、敏锐,但又不温不火、雅正平和,这也跟作者写作时候的心态和视角有关,毕竟已经是对往事的回忆。


Note of Hiding in the East unfolds around the Meng family in Kunming during the war, their relatives, friends and colleagues, describing their pain and suffering caused by the war and the resultant deep insights into life.


The novel features a simple structure and narrates a story of faculty and students relocation to the south in a chronological order. It focuses on the daily occurrences in the family and on campus since the relocation instead of the big events. Amongst literary works on similar themes, this novel, unique in its autobiographical perspective, is simple, true to life and deeply touching. The harsh material conditions during the war actually inspire patriotic fervor. The novel exudes thorough determination to achieve victory throughout.


The author describes the psychology of the characters in a delicate, acute and well-balanced manner. She is reminiscent of her own childhood and youth during the war.



作品概要

Synopsis


抗战期间的 1938 年,明仑大学迁到昆明,建立了简易的校舍,坚持办学。历史系教授孟樾和妻子吕碧初都很喜欢昆明的气候,只是,由于经常遭到敌机轰炸,经常需要跑警报。大女儿峨在上美国教师课的时候,遇到了自己以前的男同学。周末,碧初一家人去给大姐素初庆祝生日,来到了阎公馆,在重庆的二姐绛初、澹台勉夫妇也来了,三姐妹在战乱的昆明相聚。素初的丈夫严亮祖是滇军将领,参加过台儿庄战役,立有战功,因在武汉保卫战中有闪失,如今在昆明修整部队,等候再赴前线。严亮祖的妾荷珠养了癞蛤蟆等古怪东西,为了辟邪,是家里权力的拥有者。聚会期间,收到北平寄来的讣告,得知吕老先生去世。

孟家去郊外祭祀碧初的父亲,遇到了敌机轰炸,二女儿嵋被震昏。回到城里,发现自己房前有个老式小汽车般大的弹坑,房子倒塌了一半。孟樾从瓦砾中挖出了床、桌椅和器皿,书箱里的书稿也平安,儿子小娃还从中刨出了砚台。小娃喜欢飞机,但已经明白事理,不喜欢杀人的飞机。碧初在《炸不倒的腊梅林》中,记叙了对父亲的思念,讲述了抗战中家庭成员的情况,说,“腊梅林是炸不倒的”,“无论怎样的艰难,逃难、轰炸、疾病……我们都会战胜,然后脱出一个新的自己”。

旧历年后,嵋上办在山上的中学昆菁学校,住宿舍时结识了富家女殷大士。熄灯后,嵋和殷大士等几个同学去山下偷吃蚕豆和看月亮,赵玉屏被蛇咬伤了。跑警报成为昆明人生活的一部分内容,明仑大学的师生逐渐有了经验,他们带着马扎到城外继续上课,直到轰炸机的马达声淹没了讲课的声音才去隐蔽。

嵋在学校发烧,被送下山住进医院,碧初决定将家搬到乡下。1939 年夏初,孟樾家迁到了龙尾村,与中文系教师钱明经是邻居。房东姓赵,家里养着猪、鸡、猫、狗和马,条件尚可,就是如厕不便。碧初去打水时,听到钱家发出轻微笑声,水桶掉进井里后喊钱的夫人惠枌帮忙,却无人答应,这才想起惠枌已经进城。碧初让惠枌帮自己剪掉了长发,听她说了亲戚卫葑和妻子雪妍在贵阳的消息。钱明经研究甲骨文,还有经商才能,对玉石、宝石都有兴趣,风流韵事不断,都得到了惠枌原谅,而这次,惠枌发现他又有外遇,坚决要求离婚。钱明经想升教授,去拜访古文字学专家白礼文,白礼文学问虽好,但性情怪癖,喜欢骂人。

卫葑和雪妍从贵阳辗转而来,风尘仆仆,找到了孟樾家,见面后都很感慨。卫葑1937 年从北平到延安,任抗大文化教员,后来调到电台工作。雪妍收到卫葑让她来延安的消息,在卫葑朋友的护送下,来到延安,为自己父亲当了汉奸而羞愧。过了一段时间,卫葑又被安排到明仑大学教书扩大影响,与雪妍一同来到昆明。

雪妍在《流不尽的芒河水》中,记述了自己来到明仑大学后的新生活,她找到了在学校教法文的工作,还学会了做饭和洗衣服。1940 年 5 月的一个夜晚,庄卣辰教授做名为“欧洲战场”的时事讲座,之后,峨、仉新雷等到茶馆小坐。峨参加植物标本采集课,坐船到滇池中心,来到太华寺。峨求了一签,上写“强求不可得,何必用强求!随缘且随分,自然不可谋。”

举行毕业典礼的时候,遇到了空袭警报,只能匆忙散会,师生唱起了雄壮的校歌,压倒了凌厉的警报声。放暑假后,孟樾和碧初向孩子们宣布搬家,到宝台山上一个文科研究所的侧院住。物质方面仍很艰苦,但经常有人来拜访,有次白礼文来,晚饭将碧初给大家炖的肉吃了一半。珍珠港事件之后,跑警报少得多了,昆明的春天又来了。在一次劳军演出中,犹太人米老人的妻子宝斐意外流产,让大家关注了这个没有国度的民族。米老人在《流浪犹太人的苦难故事》中写到,对于犹太人来说,哪里是国和家?米老人曾经在青岛工作,回德国家乡后因为是犹太人而遭到歧视。他与妻子找不到收留的国度,而中国接纳了他,但在来中国的船上妻子去世。在船上他结识了同为犹太人,也流亡中国的宝斐。宝斐的丈夫和儿子被纳粹杀死,脸上也留下了伤疤,因为共同的命运,他们同病相怜,后来结婚。

暑假将至,又到了续聘的时候,离校一年的白礼文突然回来,但学校不再聘请他。碧初、惠枌等几位太太自己动手做大葱肉馅包子、芝麻糖馅包子和椒盐花卷,摆了一个“太太摊”来卖,很受欢迎,但遭到峨的反对。有天雪妍路过来帮助,却晕倒了,郎中前来,诊断为喜脉。

昆明比几年前繁华得多,经常能见到开着吉普车横冲直撞的美国空军,还开张了一家新式电影院。峨喜欢萧子蔚教授,前去表白,被婉拒。却遇到仉新雷来求婚,峨当即答应。回去告诉父母的路上,仉新雷为躲避军车掉下悬崖摔死了,峨也受了轻伤,她坚持在报纸上登出了二人订婚的启事。碧初想把一幅翡翠耳坠和别针变卖补贴家用,正好钱明经来看孟樾,就带走了。孟樾写宋史的文章有影射之嫌,有两个人来到孟家,不说原因把孟樾带走了,到半路又将他释放。严亮祖准备上前线,来辞别孟樾一家。雪妍生了一个儿子,取名卫凌难。一天,雪妍去潭边洗衣服,不慎落水而死。《卫凌难之歌》以卫凌难的口吻,写了失去母亲的孩子的辛酸和对战争的控诉,他只有哭,“哭是我的歌”。孟樾一家返回了城里。嵋参加了义演,但是义演的行为却遭到质疑,因有人利用捐款大吃大喝。

春去夏来,昆明花事繁忙,人事也发生着变化。卫葑离开了昆明。嵋高中毕业,考上了明仑大学的数学系。昆明各校领导召开了会议,按照部署,大学要迁校,四年级学生要服兵役上战场。无论如何,每个人心上都有一句话,“我们决不投降!”


In 1938, the second year of the War of Resistance Against Japan, Minglun University is relocated to Kunming, the capital of China’s southwestern province Yunnan, where makeshift buildings are constructed in order to continue educating. Meng Yue, a professor of history, and his wife Lü Bichu both enjoy the weather in Kunming, although they constantly need to seek shelter against enemy air raids. Er, their eldest daughter meets her ex-male classmate during a class with an American teacher. One weekend, Bichu’s family visits the mansion of the Yan family, the home of her eldest sister Suchu, to celebrate her birthday. Jiangchu, her second elder sister, and Tantai Mian, her husband, also come from Chongqing, the provisional capital during the War, for the occasion. The three sisters celebrate their reunion in war-ravaged Kunming. Yan Liangzu, Suchu’s husband, is a general of the Yunnan army. He serves with distinction in The Battle of Tai’erzhuang. Later he suffers a mishap during the Battle of Wuhan, the wartime provisional capital before it falls to the Japanese in 1938. He is currently reassembling his troops in anticipation of marching again to the frontlines. Hezhu, his concubine, is the real mistress of the household. She keeps weird things like toads to exorcise evil spirits. During the reunion, an obituary arrives from Beiping (name of Beijing from 1928 to 1949, when Nanjing was the official capital of the Republic of China), announcing the passing of the father of the three sisters. 


The Meng family holds a memorial service for Bichu’s father in the suburbs. They come under enemy air raid. Mei, the second daughter, faints from shellshock. Back in Kunming, the family discovers a crater the size of a vintage car in front of their house, which is half demolished by the air raid. Meng Yue manages to recover pieces of furniture such as their bed, table and chairs as well as utensils from the rubble. His manuscripts are also found intact in his bookcase. Xiaowa, his son, also digs out from the rubble an ink stone. Xiaowa has by now grown out of his fascination with aeroplanes, which he now sees as murder weapons. 


In her article The Winter-Sweet Grove that Will not Fall to Enemy Bombs, Bichu expresses her memory of her father and describes the condition of her family during the war. She states that, “the winter-sweet grove will not fall to enemy bombs,” and “whatever the hardship, flight, bombing, disease...we shall overcome and build a new life for ourselves.”


After the lunar New Year, Mei starts to attend the Kunjing High School for Girls, which is situated on the mountains. She gets to know Yin Dashi, a classmate from a prosperous family. After lights out, Mei, Yin Dashi and a couple of other classmates sneak out to the foot of the mountain to eat beans and watch the moon. Zhao Yuping, one of her classmates, suffers a snakebite.


It is part of daily routine for wartime Kunming residents to seek shelter upon the sounding of air raid alarm. Faculty and students of Minglun University have become used to this. Whenever air raid alarms begin to sound, they will escape with campstools to the suburbs to continue their class. They will only go into shelter once the drone of enemy bombers drowns out the sound of their discussion.


Mei falls sick with fever. She is moved from the school and checked into a hospital. Bichu decides to move the family to the countryside. 


Early in the summer of 1939 the Meng family moves to Longwei village. Their neighbor is Qian Mingjing, a lecturer from the Chinese Department. Mr. Zhao, the landlord, keeps pigs, chickens, cats, dogs and horses. The living conditions are passable except for the inconvenient sanitary arrangement. One day, when Bichu goes to fetch water from the well, she hears light laughter in Qian’s home. When the pail falls to the bottom of the well, Bichu calls Huifen, Mrs. Qian, for help and receives no answer. She then recalls that Huifen has left for town. Bichu asks Huifen to help cut her long hair and learns from Huifen the news that Wei Feng, her relative, and his wife, Xueyan, are in Guiyang, the capital of neighboring province of Guizhou. Qian Mingjing studies oracle bone inscriptions and, with business acumen, deals in jade and precious stones. He has had various extra-marital affairs, which have so far all been forgiven by Huifen. Upon discovery of his latest affair, however, Huifen insists on a divorce. Qian Mingjing desires promotion to professorship and visits Bai Liwen, an expert on paleography, to seek his support. Erudite as he is, Bai Liwen is eccentric and prone to verbal abuse.


Weifeng and Xueyan arrive at Meng Yue’s home after a long and arduous journey from Guiyang. They recall the past with strong emotions. In 1937, Weifeng arrives in Yan’an from Beiping. First he works as a teacher at the Chinese People’s Military and Political University against Japan and then leaves to work at a radio station. Xueyan receives Weifeng’s message, asking her to join him in Yan’an. Ashamed of the fact that her father has become a collaborator with the Japanese aggressors, she comes to Yan’an under the escort of Weifeng’s friend. Sometime later, the Communist Party of China arranges for Weifeng to teach at Minglun University in order to expand the influence of the Party. Consequently, Weifeng and Xueyan come to Kunming together. 


In her article Endlessly Flows the Mang River, Xueyan describes her new life at Minglun University: she has found a post teaching French and learned to cook and launder.


One evening in May 1940, after attending a lecture by professor Zhuang Youchen on the current situation of “the War in the European Theater,” Er, Zhang Xinlei and other students chat in a teashop. During her field trip to collect specimen for the botany class, Er sails to the center of the Dian Lake and asks for an oracle bamboo slip at Taihua temple, which reveals to her that “all good matches are made in heaven and occur by divine will only.”


The graduation ceremony has to be broken up in a hurry due to air raid warning. However, teachers and students sing the magnificent school song and drown out the sharp noise of air raid warning. During the summer vacation, the Meng family moves to the side yard of a research institute for the humanities on Baotai Mountain. Though living hand to mouth themselves, they still receive and entertain many visitors. Once Bai Liwen comes and gobbles up half of the meat dish for dinner. After the Pearl Harbor incident, air raids occur less frequently. Spring returns to Kunming. During one of the performances for the troops, Baofei, wife of Mr. Mi, the elderly Jewish gentleman, suffers a miscarriage, drawing attention to this wandering race without a nation.


In his article The Trial and Tribulation of a Wandering Jew, Mr. Mi wonders where country and home are for a Jew. He once worked in Qingdao, a once German concession and was discriminated against once back in Germany due to his race. While other countries refuse to accept the request of asylum by him and his wife, China opens her door to them. Tragically, his wife dies on the boat to China. On the boat he gets to know Baofei, a Jewess with a scar on her face, whose husband and son have been murdered by the Nazis. United by a common fate, they console each other and finally get married. 


Around the time Minglun University decides whether to continue to engage members of the faculty, Bai Liwen, absent for a year, suddenly returns, only to be told that his contract will not be renewed. Bichu, Huifen and other wives of members of the faculty open up a stall to sell steamed buns with fillings such as scallions and meat, sesame and sugar as well as twisted steamed rolls with salt and pepper. Their business booms. However, Er does not approve. One day, Xueyan drops by to lend a hand and suddenly faints. The doctor declares that she is pregnant. 


Kunming is now much more prosperous than compared with a few years ago. Jeeps driven by crews of US air force can be frequently seen on the streets. A new cinema with state-of-the-art facilities has opened up. Er declares her affection to professor Xiao Ziwei and receives a gentle refusal. When Zhang Xinlei proposes, she immediately accepts. On the way to breaking the news to her parents, to avoid collision with military vehicle, Zhang Xinlei veers and falls off the cliff to his death while Er suffers a mild injury. At her insistence, news of their engagement is published in the paper. Bichu wants to sell her jade ear pendants and pins to pay for daily expenses. Qian Mingjing happens to visit and take them away to look for potential buyers. The articles penned by Meng Yue on the history of Song dynasty are construed as an implicit attack on the government. Two agents take away Meng Yue without giving a reason and release him half way. Yan Liangzu comes to bid farewell to the Meng family as he is ready to march to the frontlines.


Xueyan gives birth to a son and names him Wei Lingnan. One day, she comes to the pond to launder and falls into the water to her death. In The Song of Wei Lingnan, her son expresses the pain at the loss of his mother and condemns the war. He can only cry, “crying is my song”. The Meng family returns to the city. Mei participates in a charity performance, whose motive is however thrown into doubt due to suspected embezzlement. 


Spring goes and summer comes. Kunming is in bloom. People change too. Weifeng leaves Kunming. Mei graduates from high school and is admitted to the math department at Minglun University. The leadership at universities in Kunming convenes meetings. According to the plan promulgated, the universities will be relocated and senior students will be drafted into the army. It is the consensus amongst all that “we shall never surrender.”


责任编辑:罗雨静

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