大解:以文学创作发现和唤醒生活的原始内涵

2018-10-09 | 信息来源:CCTSS | 原作者:罗雨静

  大解,原名解文阁,男,1957年6月生于中国河北青龙县,曾任《诗神》月刊副主编,现为河北省作家协会副主席。1973年高中毕业后回乡务农,期间与同乡青年共同创办文学刊物《幼苗》(出4期后停刊)。1979年毕业于清华大学水利工程系,曾从事水利技术工作,后改行从事文学创作。叙事长诗《悲歌》(16000行)出版后,被业界誉为“东方的创世纪史诗”。具有本土性和开创性的寓言集《傻子寓言》被称为“超越荒诞,走向扯淡”的开先河之作。2014年诗集《个人史》获鲁迅文学奖。

  大解的小说、寓言、诗歌,都有超现实的属性。他认为:“在现实和语言的双重的虚幻背景下,我不是要去澄清它,而是去加深它的浓度,甚至虚构本身也是现实的一个向度,构成了世界的多维性和丰富性。”大解的寓言从现实出发,一本正经地讲述,却从荒诞和深刻走向了胡扯,把非理性转变为文学现实,通过语言揭示出现实表象所被遮蔽的东西。他的寓言幽默智慧,幻象和理性交织,颠覆读者的想象力。大解的小说《长歌》是献给农耕时代一首挽歌,通过一个家庭的理想破灭而展现出梦幻般的农耕史,在自然的和谐与平静中渗透出人的艰难、无奈和隐忍。小说把传说和神话还原为当下现实,带有浓郁的乡土风情和神秘色彩。

  詹福瑞认为:“作为国内目前篇幅最长的一首叙事诗,《悲歌》有着它并不复杂的故事情节,然而围绕着这些故事情节而展开的庞大的生命序列和思想内容,却使读者不能不感喟它的复杂与深邃。诗人对生命的求索,对民族的解剖,对灵魂的拷问,有着叙事诗故事情节无法代替、无法达到的震撼人心的力量。使《悲歌》成为人类与民族的史诗,更成为生命与心灵的史诗。”杨四平说:“超现实长诗《悲歌》通过人与自然、人与人、人与自身、人与死亡之间的冲突,尤其是战争冲突,来抒写主人公公孙从自发到自觉艰难而孤独的心灵历程。它着力以爱和创造精神为轴心来树立起公孙作为力量型的神话人物形象,以此来张扬人的自我意识和人本主义的生命立场。《悲歌》的原创性、本土性使得它在当代史诗创作里独树一帜。”张学梦称:“这是一部庄严的巨著。一部东方史诗。东方的创世记。它的诞生将成为中国诗歌史上的一个事件。”

  大解的作品具有很强的不确定性,无论是诗歌、寓言、小说、甚至是他的雕塑(石头雕塑),都极具创造性,他总是使人们感到意外。

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  大解

  Da Xie

  The author Da Xie was born Xie Wenge in June of 1957 in Qinglong, a county in China’s Hebei province. Da Xie once served as deputy editor of the “Shishen” monthly, and currently holds the position of vice-chairman of the Hebei Writers Association. Upon graduating from high school in 1973, he returned to his hometown for agricultural work, during which he founded a literary journal by the name of “Seedlings” along with some other young people from the area. “Seedlings” ceased publication after four issues. In 1979 Da Xie graduated from Tsinghua University’s hydraulic engineering department. After a stint working in the field of hydraulic technology, he changed tack and became a writer. Following its publication, Da Xie’s narrative, 16,000-line long-form poem Elegy was hailed as the “Genesis epic of the East”. His nativist and innovative collection of parables The Idiot’s Fables has been described as a groundbreaking work that “surpasses the absurd in the direction of nonsense”. His 2014 poem anthology A Personal History was awarded the “Lu Xun Literature Award”.

  Da Xie’s novels, fables, and poems all have elements of surrealism within them. He has said: “It isn’t my intention to do away with the imaginary — both in terms of reality and language — rather I wish to deepen and strengthen it. One could even say that fiction is in itself a dimension of reality, the very thing of which the world’s multidimensionality and plentifulness are constituted.”Reality lies at the starting point of Da Xie’s fables, which, while narrated with distinct solemnity, go from the fantastical and profound to the absurd. They turn irrationality into a literary reality, using the means of language to uncover the things enshrouded by the appearance of reality. Both humour and wisdom exist within Da Xie’s fables, while illusion and reason join forces to subvert the reader’s imagination. His novel Long Song is an elegy devoted to the farming age, recounting somewhat dreamily the history of agrarian civilization through the dissolution of one family’s aspirations. Permeating through the harmony and tranquility of nature is the fatigue, helplessness, and resilience that come with being human. Thrusting legend and myth back into reality, the novel is thick with nativist customs and mysterious colour.

  In the words of Zhan Furui: “One of contemporary China’s longest narrative poems, Elegy is not at all complicated in its storyline. Yet the life sequences and ideological content that revolve around — and extend from — its plot make it impossible for the reader not to marvel at the work’s complexity and profundity. The poet’s pursuit of life, dissection of ethnicity, and interrogation of the soul carry tremendous power — the sort of power that the storyline of a narrative poem alone cannot rival nor replace. This makes Elegy not only an epic poem about humanity and ethnicity, but also an epic poem about life and the soul.”

  Speaking of the same work, Yang Siping said: “The surrealist Elegyuses the conflicts between people and nature, between people themselves, within people themselves, and between people and death — particularly conflicts emanating from war — as a means to elucidate the arduous and lonely psychological journey that the protagonist Gong Sun goes on from spontaneousness to conscientiousness. With love and a creative spirit at its center, the work makes efforts to establish Gong as a powerful mythical figure, in the process promoting such life philosophies as self-awareness and humanism. Elegy is a unique specimen among contemporary China’s epic poems, thanks to both its originality and nativism.”

  Zhang Xuemeng said: “It is a solemn work of vast proportions. It is an epic of the East — its very own Genesis. The work’s birth will forever be an event in the history of Chinese poetry.”

  Da Xie’s works possess a strong sense of uncertainty. Whether it is his poems, fables, novels, or even his sculptures in stone, his entire oeuvre blossoms with creativity. He will always surprise you.


责任编辑:霍娟

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