此次研修班还让我想起了20世纪70年代中期我在约翰尼斯堡经营的一家译制和音效工作室。我为Ross Devenish和Athol Fugard合作拍摄的电影《贵宾》处理音轨，为电视剧制作音效。我知道南非广播公司签约的配音导演要审查什么，我也知道实际上当时我们对译制知之甚少。而现在，我们知道中国传媒大学还有影视译制的博士学位。
The UKZN Griot. Of Dubbing and Translation
Marketization,Foreignization,Translation.These are terms I have learned during three lengthy visits to China, 2015-2017. Marketization refers to translating Chinese enterprises from the pejorative ‘faked in China’, an indication of resistant pre-modernity, to ‘created in China’, an indication of consumerist post-modernity. Foreignization refers to translating Chinese culture abroad. And, translation means basically how to enable intercultural communication between China and the world at large.The practice of translation involves ‘soft power’ as China engages globally, or ‘Going Abroad’, as its linguists phrase it.
Where South Africa seems to be shedding its foreign language programmes, and turning in on itself, China is investing massively in English language courses and in ‘Foreign Studies’ universities, of which there are many. Business communication, business linguistics and discourse analysis are applied to anything and everything in trying to make sense of that mysterious set of virtual relationships known as ‘the market’. The study of advertising and branding is big discourse analysis business, and includes study of how China is branding itself as it emerges out of its slumber.
I have recently found myself as the guest of many conferences and organisations resulting from China’s emergence. I was the guest of the Ministry of Culture in June, under whose auspices occurred the 2017 Sino-Foreign Audiovisual Translation & Dubbing Cooperation Workshop, held in Shanghai. The Shanghai Film and TV Market, associated with the Shanghai International Film Festival is an overwhelming smorgasboard of animation and visual effects, new technologies and thousands of full length features being pitched, made, and sold.It was quite dizzying.
The Chinese cinema dragon is in the rise. Translators, dubbing technicians and directors and producers are all working with the CPC central committee to implement a “Work Plan” to promote Chinese cinema across the globe. Students and academics are actively studying translation in film and TV, e.g., as is offered at the Communication University of China (CUC): theory and history of film translation, sub-titling and dubbing, fansubbing, and translation in the digital age. Students are being trained as dubbing technicians, translators and theorists. Thousands of jobs have been created.Chinese film is not being left to chance or the vicissitudes of ‘the market’ as was experienced during the rise of Hollywood in the early 19th Century which coincided with the demise of South Africa’s Hollyveld as a momentary competitor.The Festival offered an unusual lattice of both academics and professionals, analysis and PR, tourism and development.
My experience at the Festival reminded me of some excellent student presentations offered on film translation at a 2015 intercultural studies held in Hong Kong, and some of the hilarious mistranslations that result. “Fruitful mishaps” was how one delegate, Bẻrẻnice Reynaud, from the California Institute of the Arts, put them. These, she suggested, “aid ‘differance’” (as used by French language deconstructionist Jacques Derrida). And, thereby holds an extraordinary tale of Chinese academic and policy ingenuity.
During my 2016 sojourn at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS) I interacted with scholars all debating China’s place in the world – through the study of both Chinese and Western philosophies, going back to Hegel – a 17th Century scholar. To understand ‘the West’ they argued that they needed to understand Western philosophy and how people in the West ‘make sense’. From a Cultural China standpoint, they were studying how identities form, hybridize and interact. At every conference the question was, how to ‘go global’ peacefully, and how to negotiate with America thus, and how to retain a national Chinese identity while acknowledging the existence and value of intercultural difference. There was no talk, as there is in South Africa, of ‘de-colonizing’ anything, but of international positioning via the pro-active dialectical principle of ‘difference’.
The CASS folks found in British Cultural Studies a means to international negotiation. Stuart Hall, one of the founding fathers of British Cultural Studies had in the 1960s developed his seminal theory of identity as a moving target by drawing on Derrida’s linguistic concept. Identity exists in ‘difference’ between cultures, but is popularly taken as fixed and immutable, as in expressions like “In my culture, we …” versus its dynamic imperative which admits change and adaptation, mobility and hybridity. It is the latter relational forms through which China is looking to negotiate its global relations in the post-millennium world. This is a future-oriented, not a past-oriented, discursive strategy.
The Shanghai Audiovisual Translation and Dubbing Festival reminded me of my mid-1970s film career when I co-owned and worked in a 16mm dubbing and sound effects studio in Johannesburg. I’d cleaned up the sound track on a Ross Devenish/Athol Fugard film, The Guest, and performed, recorded and edited sound effects on TV dramas. I knew what was being censored by the dubbing directors contracted to the South African Broadcasting Corporation and I knew how little we actually knew about dubbing and translation. Now, we know there is now a PhD in the subject at CUC.
The Festival programme talked about “mutual translation” in the context of mutual appreciation and intercultural understanding. The week that I departed for China at the end of May 2017 was when the Belt and Road” initiative had grabbed the international headlines. As part of BRICS, South Africa could be part of this phenomenon. Let’s just hope that we can keep our own country on the financial rails as in contrast to a corruption-busting China as South Africa is dragged into new kind of familist colonialism that has nothing to do with mutual cooperation, going abroad or internationalisation at any level.
China has a ‘coming out’ strategy. We can all learn from this.
(“The UKZN Griot” is published in UKZNndaba, the University’s newspaper http://ndabaonline.ukzn.ac.za/ This article is reproduced in Chinese with permission.)
Keyan Tomaselli，南非夸祖鲁·纳塔尔大学(University of KwaZulu-Natal)名誉教授，南非约翰内斯堡大学杰出教授。南非传播协会(SACOMM)终身研究员，国际权威期刊《艺术批评》主编。南非文化传播、媒体、社会等人文学科方面研究权威专家，有长达40多年的研究历史，希望能为中国和南非之间的影视文化传播起到桥梁的作用。
Keyan Tomaselli is Professor Emeritus at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN), and Distinguished Professor at the University of Johannesburg, both in South Africa.
作者 | Keyan G Tomaselli
翻译 | 刘婷婷 咸慧
中文编辑 | 王富丽
指导 | 金海娜